330 BC – A land, Ultima Thule, in the farthest north was for the first time mentioned in geography by the Greek navigator Pytheas. The land should be six days and nights of saling away from Britania and one day and night from the end of the world.
700´s – Evidence of Irish monks living in Iceland.
850 – Naddoddur a Norwegian Viking or merchant, landed in Reydarfjordur.
860 – Norsemen discover Iceland.
860 – Flóki Vilgerðarson, a Norwegian explorer known as Hrafna-Flóki (Ravens-Flóki) spent two winters in Iceland. He arrived there in hunger and distress in the middle of the winter. In bitterness, he called the island Ice-Land and sailed back to Norway.
870 (around) – Colonization of Iceland began.
870 – The Swede Garðar Svavarsson spent one winter in Húsavík. He sailed around the land and proved that it was an island. He named tha land Garðarshólmur (Gardars-island) after his own name.
874 – Ingólfur Arnarson, a rich and influential Norwegian farmer sailed to Iceland and made his home at Reykjavík.
874 - 930 The Settlement of Iceland. The period of settlement lasted until the mid-10 th century. It is reckoned that by that time some 60,000 persons came to Iceland. The settlers were mainly big farmers and chieftains who were dissatisfied excessive personal power of the king in Norway. The emigrated with their families, kinsmen, serfs and livestock and settled on the lowlands along the coasts where they coud pursue farming. They established large farms and sustained themeselves mostly by breeding cattle and some fishing. There was no central administration or government yet in the new land but people met at local assemblies every spring and autumn.
930 - 1030 The Saga Age.
930 - The first Althing (Parliament) and the establishment of the Republic of Iceland at Þingvellir plains. Beginning of the Free State. In this first nationwide ssembly, the delegates adopted a constitution for the whole land modelled on the Norwegian constitution. Alþing was to be held annually in midsummer for 14 days to decide all matters related to justice, trade, marriages, disputes and so on.
985 Eiríkur the Red, father of Leifur Eiríksson, discovers and settles in Greenland.
986 – Settlement of Greenland began.
1000 Christianity adopted as the new religion. Leifur "the Lucky" Eiríksson discovers North America and names it Vínland ( Wine Land).
1030 The beginning of the Age of Peace lasting until 1120.
1056 Consecration of the first bishop of Iceland, Ísleifur Gissurarson at Skálholt.
1082 - Skálholt becomes the diocesan seat of the first bishopric of Iceland.
1096 - Iceland is the first Nordic Country to introduce payment of tithe to the church. The power of big farmers and chieftains had now grown stedily but unobtrusively.
1106 – A second bishopric established at Hólar in the north. Jón Ögmundsson became the first bishop there and abolished pagan customs and practises. He succeeded in changing the days of the week which were named after the pagan gods Tyr (Tuesday), Odin (Wednesday) and Thor (Thursday) to third day (þriðjudagur), midweek day (miðvikudagur), and fifth day (fimmtudagur). He also forbade dancing and love poems,
1117 - 1118 The laws of the Althing are written down after having been transmitted orally. End of the Age of Peace.
1120 - 1230 The Great Age of Writing. An era of tremendous literary activity. During this period such great historical works as Íslendingabók (the first national history, The Book Of Icelanders, 1130) and Heimskringla (The History Of Norwegian Kings 1225-1235) were written by Ari Þorgilsson the priest, nicknamed “the learned” and Snorri Sturluson respectively.
1133 – The first monastery established in Þingeyrar.
1179 – Snorri Sturluson is born.
1230 - Beginnings of the Age of Sturlungs: beginning of the Civil War. This was the last period in Iceland’s 400 years as an inderpendant free state. The Sturlungs were members of the powerful Sturlunga clan who gave their name to the period and amongst them were authors of the classic Icelandic Sagas. The most famous and greatest of them all was the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson. The Clan, through marriages and political alliances, domnated a great part of the country, but other chieftains and influential families refused to accept their domination. The prolonged feuds and power struggles brought about economic and social ruin.
1241 Snorri Sturluson, poet, historian, and chieftain, author of the Prose Edda and the Heimskringla is murdered by his enemies in Reykholt at the instigation of the Norwegian king Hákon.
1244 – Sea battle in Húnaflói.
1262 – End of the Commonwealth Period. End of the Age of Sturlungs. King of Norway, taking advantage of the situation in Iceland, brought Iceland under the Norwegian Crown. Icelanders became a subjected people dependent on Norwegian ships for supplies, which often failed to come. A period of great hardship and desolation followed. Ice often blocked the fiords and the sea approaches. Violent volcanic eruptions, epidemics and famine ravaged the entire country.
1275 – Adoption of Christian laws strengthened the power of the church in Iceland.
1300 – Eruption of Hekla (also in 1341 and 1389), strong earthquakes, cattle diseases, famines and epidemics.
1311 – Volcanic eruptions.
1380 – 97 - Iceland and Norway come under the Danish crown. An event that further worsened the conditions in the country. Icelandic chieftains abolished and replaced by Danish royal officials. Alþing became a court of law, judges chosen by royal officers.
1402 - 1404 The Black Death plague ravages Iceland. Nearly third of the population died. Only 30-40.000 survived.
1477 – Christopher Columbus visited Iceland.
1490 – English ships began fishing in Icelandic waters by paying dues to the Danish crown.
1540 - 1550 The Reformation imposed on Iceland by the order of the Danish king. First Lutherian Bishop installe in Skálholt. End of the Middle ages. The last Catholic bishop, Jón Arason, who opposed the introduction of the Reformation in Iceland, was beheaded.
1579 – English pirates attacked and plundered coast of the West fiords.
1602 Denmark establishes a trade monopoly. The monopoly covered all trade with Iceland and violators were punished severely. A prolonged period of immense material destitution.
1618 – Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
1627 – North African pirates plundered the east fiords and Westman Islands, killing many.
1660 – Katla erupted.
1662 Absolutism enforced on Iceland by Denmark. Danish King assumed hereditary power. Alþing´s power declined.
1693 – Hekla erupted.
1707 – Smallpox epidemic killed 18,000.
1727 – Öræfajökull erupted.
1749 – Skúli Magnússon became the official in charge of administrative affairs (landfógeti).
1755 – Katla erupted.
1757 – Nine thousand perished of disease and famine.
1783 - 1785 The catastrophic Lakagígar eruption and earthquakes. One of the most cataclysmic volcanic eruptions in the modern history of planet Earth, followed by a devastating earthquake, which completely destroyed bishopric of Skálholt, caused untold damage and loss of 10,000 persons. A great famine followed these natural catastrophes. Denmark seriously contemplated relocating the remaining population of Iceland in the moors of Jutland in Denmark.
1786 Reykjavík obtains town status. Population at the time was 200.
1787 Danish monopoly lifted partially.
1798 – Alþing moved to Reykjavík from Þingvellir.
1800 The Althing is dissolved by royal decree. It is replaced by the surpreme court. End of dark ages.
1801 – Awakening of national identity, beginning of modern Iceland.
1814 – Norway left the union with Denmark.
1818 The National Library of Iceland is founded.
1843 The Althing is re-established as a consultative body but only few powerful feudal barons and landowners elected. Jón Sigurðsson leads the continuing struggle for greater autonomy.
1848 – Alþing demanded autonomy and Icelands first newspaper appeared.
1854 – Danish Trade monopoly lifted. Complete freedom of trade for Iceland.
1855 – Freedom of press established.
1861 The National Museum founded.
1874 Millenium celebration of the Settlement. King Christian IX of Denmark visits Iceland for the first time. New Icelandic constitution.
1904 Constitution amended. Home rule under Denmark.
1906 Submarine telegraph cable from Scotland to Iceland
1911 University of Iceland founded.
1915 Women granted national elections voting rights.
1915 – Iceland acquired its own flag.
1918 The sovereign Icelandic state established and policy of permanent neutrality adopted.
1919 The Icelandic Coast Guard begins operating around Iceland.
1920 The Supreme court founded.
1930 Millennium of the Alþing celebrated in Þingvellir.
1940 Denmark occupied by Germany. Iceland occupied by British troops due to its strategic location.
1941 U.S. forces takes over defense of Iceland and policy of permanent neutrality abandoned.
1944 Iceland rescinded its union with Denmark and on June 17 th The republic of Iceland founded at Þingvellir. Sveinn Björnsson elected as the first president.
1945 First International flight by Icelandic aircraft.
1946 Iceland joins the United Nations.
1947 Iceland is one of the founding members of OEEC (in 1961 changed to OECD).
1949 Iceland becomes a founding members of NATO.
1950 Iceland joined Council of Europe.
1951 Defence agreement between the United States and Iceland.
1952 Iceland's fishery limits extended to four miles. Iceland joins the Nordic Council. Sveinn Björnsson first president dies.
1955 Halldór Kiljan Laxness receives the Nobel prize for literature.
1958 Iceland's fishery limits extended to 12 miles. "Cod War" with Britain. The new limit accepted after 3 years of conflict.
1961 The Danish Parliament passed a law to return the Icelandic manuscripts to Iceland.
1962 Radio-telephone submarine cable from Scotland to Iceland.
1963 Radio-telephone submarine cable between Iceland and Canada.
1963 Birth of submarine island Surtsey off the coast of Iceland by an underwater volcanic eruption. A rare natural phenomenon in modern times.
1965 Denmark agrees to return the Icelandic manuscripts. Icelandic national TV station went on air.
1967 Disapperance of herring from Icelandic waters and the ensuing economic crisis.
1970 Iceland joins EFTA.
1971 Arrival of the first Icelandic manuscripts from Copenhagen.
1972 Fishery limits extended to 50 miles, causing a second "Cod War" with Britain, who accept the new limit after Iceland threatens to pull out of NATO and break all diplomatic relations. Fischer and Spassky compete for the World Championship title in chess in Reykjavík.
1973 Volcanic eruption on Heimaey, the only inhabited island of the Westman Islands, on the night of january 23 rd. Nixon - Pompidou summit in Reykjavík.
1974 1100th anniversary of the Settlement. To mark the occation the last stretch of the 1406 km Ring Road around Iceland was completed.
1975 Fishery limits extended to 200 miles. The third "Cod War" with Britain. Iceland renewed its earlier threats and won the war.
1980 Vigdís Finnbogadóttir becomes first woman ever to be democratically elected President of a Republic.
1983 Worlds first ever Women’s party founded in Iceland and won 5,5% of the total seats in Alþing.
1986 Reagan - Gorbachev summit meeting held in Höfði House, Reykjavík on October 11-12 at very short notice.
1987 Nato ministeral meeting in Reykjavík. The new ultramodern Leifur Eiríksson Air Terminal inaugurated.
1989 Pope John Paul II made official visit til Iceland. Sale of strong beer permitted after 81 years prohibitation.
1995 Avalanches hit fishing villages in the West fjords on two seperate occasions, killing a total of 34 people.
1998 Nobel Prize winner Halldór Kiljan Laxness died